Worldbuilding and storytelling in VR – Part 2

I recently wrote a blog entry about how to build worlds and tell stories in VR. I expanded on this topic for a talk at the GameZ Festival in Zurich and, of course, I don’t want to keep the information from you, so here is Part 2 of How to build worlds and tell stories in VR.

Influences in VR Storytelling

One big thing we have to think about when writing stories for VR is how the medium itself influences our possibilities. Of course, we all know that the way a story is told in VR differs from ‘regular play’, but we really tried to pinpoint important aspects in order to be aware of them and avoid pitfalls.

We’ve identified three major factors that impact storytelling in VR, which are:

Influence No. 1: Technical Challenges and Limitations


I’ve already talked about some of the technical challenges and limitations of VR in Part 1, but here comes an extended list:


The Resolution


The resolution is a big topic when it comes to VR devices! Although the improvements in this area come in big steps, the resolution is still very limited, and the pixel density is very low. This means you not only have to consider the size of objects you’re placing in your world (if they are too small, they may not be recognized), but also your UI; if the font size is too small or you’re displaying large quantities of text, it may happen that the player gets tired of reading or, even worse, may not be able to read the information at all. One way to deal with this is to completely avoid these types of texts, but if you need to pack a lot of information in, then use voice-overs to present it to the player.


Another funny thing we have to cope with is the worldspace size of objects. You may model your content to exact dimensions – let’s say for example, you have a table that is 80cm high and has a width of 1 x 2 meters – don’t expect that table to has actually look that size! In fact, we really had to develop kind of a sixth sense for modeling our assets so they look like the size that they should be, rather than modeling to an exact size.

The field of view

The most popular available devices have currently a limitation in their field of view to around 100 degrees. In comparison, both human eyes combined have a field of view of around 200 degrees.

Bearing this in mind, try to keep the non-diegetic elements (elements that do not directly belong to the gameworld) in the player’s focal point. Also, create your world so the player has to move his head and is not tempted to move his eyes! (One reason for this is the next point on the list…)


Motion sickness is one of the main gamebreakers when it comes to VR. Besides advanced techniques to improve the occurrence of motion sickness, (like speed-controlled tunnel masking for the peripheral vision) there are some basic rules which are forgotten surprisingly often:

  • Don’t use multiple cameras

It not only very likely breaks the immersion, but also contributes to nausea. If you really have to change cameras, work with black fading.

  • NEVER move the camera without direct user input!

I can’t emphasize this enough, so please avoid this by any means! (Unless you’re developing a nausea simulator – then you’re good to go!)

Talking about camera problems…


Cameras are the root cause of a lot of problems in VR. I just said that one should not move the camera without direct user input, which fixes one aspect of the motion sickness problem, but creates another one: the PHI (Player-Head-Input) problem.

Influence No. 2: The Phi problem

Imagine the following situation:

You want the player to look at a certain point on a door, which is indicated by the red arrow in the left image, but instead, the player does what you can see in the right image..

This brings me to (in my opinion) the most important rule of all:

THE SCREEN IS NOT YOURS – it belongs to the player!

We, as storytellers, cannot decide what the player is looking at; we can only try to influence him as he travels in our world.


In VR, we have to create a toolset on how to do this and use it to actively encourage the player to look where we want him/her to look at.

One way to guide the players attention is to use spatial audio and use the environment to tell your story.

In the above scene of our game, Return to Nangrim, the player would hear croaking noises of crows when approaching the fire tower and then, when looking up, see the birds flying around it. In this way, we tell the player through context that there must be something about this fire tower worth checking out.

Influence No. 3: The player’s volatile attention span

What also plays into this problem is the user’s volatile and arbitrary attention span. If you want to keep the player hooked on your story, you need to give him good reasons to stay interested.

One strategy to do so is to create points of interest for the player where he can explore your world and get information.

Also, encourage the player to interact with your environment by providing subtle hints like light beams or placing objects in a certain manner.

And create and spread narrative webs around your gameworld for the player to stick to and stay for a while to enjoy!



To sum everything up, these are the combined lessons learned in Part 1 and Part 2:

Remember: the screen is not yours! Influence the player’s decision by using natural guidance and keep things interesting with a lively and rich gameworld. You’re providing hints, you’re not pulling strings!


I hope this summary gave you some information that will help you with your VR story development. As always – feel free to contact me and ask any questions!

Worldbuilding and Storytelling in VR

A few months ago, I was asked by the SGDA (Swiss Game Developers Association) to give a talk at the Forward Festival in Zurich, together with Stéphane Intissar, CEO of OZWE Games. The topic: Storytelling in VR. Timeframe: 10min max, each.

I was challenged to pack over 9 years of ongoing development into a 10 minute talk. I had to take a deep breath, as so much information raced through my head that it seemed almost impossible to condense all those details into such a short timeframe. So, I decided to present a cross-section of our worldbuilding, using our Stonebeards as a template

Giving that talk was a very interesting experience, so I decided to write this blog entry to share some of the things I spoke about. So, here’s a wrap-up of the lessons we’ve learned and the worldbuilding approach we’ve developed over the past 9 years. I hope you enjoy it!

In the beginning was the story…

Before even thinking about making an actual game, we started with the creation of our universe. To get to those 600+ families, clans and tribes mentioned in the slide above, we had to brainstorm, sit together, argue together and discuss A LOT. We spent almost every night during our time at university creating the Lore of Arafinn. Beginning with names and a world map, with time we created a huge compendium to describe each and every aspect of the Lands of Arafinn. We had a clear vision in mind: creating a self-contained fantasy universe. To us that means every fact, event, happening etc. must make sense and our universe must follow a logical structure based on rules that we define. In order to achieve this goal, we knew that we could not just start developing a game or write a book from scratch but first had to let our universe grow.

By the time we began with the development for Return to Nangrim, 7 years had already passed. One thing that evolved throughout those 7 years was the culture of the Stonebeards, the most powerful dwarven family of Arafinn. The rest of this blog entry will focus on the development of this specific culture but can be seen as a template to be adapted to fit any aspect around which you’d like to build a self-contained world.

What you need before you begin:

  • You will need TIME, and by this, I mean a lot if not most of your free time.
  • A big bunch of idealism with a small tinge of megalomania
  • And not to forget, probably the most important skill: endurance.

Together this forms TIME, which really is the key – take your time! Rome wasn’t built in a day, and nor will your universe be.

The principles of the 4WH

When we create a family, house or clan, we ask ourselves the 4WH’s:

What, Who, Where, When and How?


As you can see in the slide above, the questions are not necessarily consecutive, and may be fed back for multiple iterations. This makes sense, as often, for example, you may need to ask yourselves . For example, asking yourself: “Where do the Stonbeards live?” automatically implies questions like: “What is the weather like where they live?” etc. (but more on that later). Going through those questions in detail and doing multiple iterations gives your story structure, context and depth.

Now, let’s begin with the first question: WHAT?

A very basic example for a what question in the context of the world of Arafinn could be:

“What are the Stonebeards?”

(We will stay with the Stonebeards for the rest of the questions to keep a red thread)

In turn, the answer should be as simple as the question: the Stonebeards are a dwarven family that are famous craftsmen and engineers.

Using this information as a foundation, we continue asking further questions, such as:

What language do the Stonebeards speak?

In our case, this question is far from trivial. As we aim to create a fully immersive universe, we decided to develop languages that are speakable and writable. For this reason, we teamed up with a language scientist who is helping us to develop grammar and phonetics for the 4main languages spoken in Arafinn.

But even if you’re not planning on developing your own language to this level of detail, you can still ask yourself questions about language within your world. Questions like “What is the language called?”

(in our case of the Stonebeards it’s Hilduir, the language of the mountains) and

“Who is actually speaking this language?”

(Hilduir is a common dwarven tongue) help create context and bring your characters to life.

Probably the most complex questions to answer in detail are the who questions.  In the case of families, clans etc. I like to begin from a broader perspective and work my way down to individuals.

In our case, the first who question to ask is simply:

“Who are the Stonebeards?”


As we already know what the Stonebeards are (the Stonebeards are a dwarven family that are famous craftsmen and engineers), now it’s time to flesh them out. To do so, a  helpful tool  is the family tree! They help you keep track of your protagonists and create order and context.

When talking about family trees, naming conventions also come into play; ask yourself: “Who is named after whom?”

Imagine A case where you have a son who is named after his father. How are these two distinguished? In our case, we chose to add the suffix “the Elder” to the father’s name. So, our father, Waldurim, is now “Waldurim the Elder” and his son is just “Waldurim”. You can also consider naming convention for royal inheritance. For example, the son of a reigning King (actually the prince) has the suffix “Stintrag” which means “Stone Carrier” in Hilduir.

After we covered the very basics of our family, we moved a step outside and asked:

Where do the Stonebeards live?

This question comes at quite a late stage as this is one of the more complex ones and often leads back to several what iterations. The idea behind this question is to analyze and define in detail the environment your characters are living in. What is the flora and fauna? What’s the geographic location? You see, you probably won’t get away with some more whats 😉

After you’ve answered the where, now comes the how:

“How do the Stonebeards live?”

Describe their environment in as much detail as possible – what they eat, where they sleep etc. Create some concepts to get a feeling for their culture and to manifest your inner picture!

If you followed these steps and did some iterations, you probably have a quite solid characterization to work with. But why is this so important? And what does this all have to do with VR?

Well, as well as the user being less forgiving of wrong dimension and proportions in VR, this is also the case for conceptual issues.

As VR is such an immersive medium, players get dragged into the world of the game, and as they can observe this world hands-on, this also means that they can observe every mistake you made in terms of logic, consistency and/or coherency from totally different angles than when playing “normally” on a flat screen.  A lot of techniques that work perfectly well in regular games don’t work so well in VR.

Lessons learned

Try to create a 3D image of the world you imagined in VR and try to be as realistic as possible. Rely on natural guidance to point the player in the right direction, instead of using intrusive elements. Want them to pick something up? Let a crack in the wall shed some light on the item in an otherwise dark room (but don’t overdo it! It should not look like the item has a halo, unless you want it to look like that – then just go ahead!)

Also, please try to avoid intrusive HUDs and flat audio – these are atmosphere killers!

I hope this short summary gives you a handy toolkit for your worldbuilding and its application in VR. As always, if you have any questions, feel free to get in touch!

Swiss Game Dev BBQ – First Edition

In the last week of June, we had the pleasure of hosting the very first Swiss Gamedev BBQ at 26rosegarden in Zurich! After weeks of preparation and brainstorming all invitations had been sent out and the big day was finally here..

…and it was raining…

The whole week the weather was quite nice, but on the day of the BBQ the weather gods decided to rain cats and dogs. But this wasn’t going to stop us from hosting an awesome event, so we kept on setting up and ignored the weather completely.


We took care of the physical wellbeing of our guests via plentiful beverages, including Bordjal (the Stonebeard’s Hilduir translation for beer) that could be tapped directly from a Stonebeard keg!

Yes… we have our own keg! 😀

Our grillmaster Jacomo from 26rosegarden gave it everything and lit up the grill despite the weather.

And as well as different typical swiss grill specialities, he also prepared an awesomely delicious flamin’ hot Texas Chili that was inspired by the awesome original recipe that reddit user u/FictionalHerbage provided (Thank you again! We will try the original one as soon as we get our hands on all the original ingredients 😊).


fiery hot pot of deliciousness! mmmmhhh…

And then finally the gods decided to be gracious, and the weather cleared up just in time for our first guests to arrive!

We were pleasantly surprised that so many swiss game studios gathered together to share a fun evening together.




Sharing knowledge



And just having a great time together!

By the end of the evening, we could all agree that it had been a great event and, for me personally, seeing so many swiss dev’s together, getting along and having fun, made this the best night of 2018 so far! And, as other’s shared my opinion too, I can happily announce that this is just the beginning! We’ve teamed up with Stray Fawn Studios to organize a subsequent event to keep the indie-grill-flame burnin’ 😉


Maybe we could do an Indie Dev Halloween event next? If you have any other ideas, let me know, I’m always open to inspiring ideas! 😀


And as a sidenote: If you happen to be in Zurich, go and check out

We’re looking forward to the next event!